In 2016, after a prolonged decline, the number of chronically undernourished people in the world is estimated to have increased to 815 million, up from 777 million in 2015. Climate change and conflicts are put forward as main reasons for this reversal of trends. However, underneath lies at least two major factors. Firstly, the increasing inequalities within and across territories. These inequalities are major hurdles to economic and social development and to build resilience against climate change. Secondly, the failures of global and local food systems to provide nutritious food for all in a sustainable manner, that takes into account social, economic, and environmental challenges.